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LAYING PATTERNS


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What does Roman Opus and Opus Size mean? 

A Roman Opus is a set laying pattern made up of 4 stone sizes, whereas a classical Opus is a set laying pattern made up of 5 stone sizes – each coverage varies by product type so please double check prior to ordering. 

What does random or freelength mean? 

A random laying pattern can contain up to 28 stone sizes with two widths within one box of natural stone products. A freelength laying pattern is made up of a course of set widths and predetermined lengths.

Click the links below to see visual images of these laying patterns.




STONE FLOOR AND WALL TILES GLOSSARY OF TERMS 

TILE FINISHES

AGED - The stone is tumbled and then distressed.

ANTIQUED - The stone is honed to mimic an aged look and then tumbled.

BEVELLED - The surface of the stone is honed with the bevelling applied to the edges.

BRUSHED - After honing the stone is wire brushed, giving a consistent textured finish.

BUSH HAMMERED - The surface of the stone is texturised with hammers to create a stone is then softened by light brushing.

DISTRESSED - The stone has a lightly pillowed effect with a smooth finish and worn aged edges.

FILLED - Naturally occurring holes in the stone are filled and the surface then honed.

FREE LENGTH - A laying format tiles, where the width of the tile is fixed and the length of the tiles can vary in size.

HAMMERED - The stone is bush hammered and brushed, achieving an anti-slip surface.

HONED - Abrasives are applied to the surface of the stone giving an even, smooth, and generally matt surface.

NATURAL CLEFT - A natural riven finish achieved by splitting the stone.

PILLOWED EDGE - The stone is honed and then its edges are gently and evenly rounded across the length and breadth of the stone.

PRE-SEALED - The stone during processing,is coated with a sealant giving a slight sheen to finish that resembles naturally weathered rock.

CALIBRATED - Stones that are processed to an even thickness with precision edges for quick and accurate laying.

CHIPPED - Stones that are processed to an even thickness with precision edges for quick and accurate laying.

CHIPPED - The edges of the stone are chipped, the the surface.

PART-HONED - Abrasives are applied to the surface of the stone giving an even, smooth surface,this is usually carried out on stones with multiple texturing techniques, giving variation in textures to the stone.

RIVEN - An uneven surface to mimic that of a natural cleft stone.

TUMBLED - The stones are placed in large tumbling machines whose action gives an aged finish to surface and edges.

UN-FILLED - Naturally occurring holes in the stones that are not filled.

WATER WORN - The stone is honed and lightly bush hammered to create a slightly undulating finish to mimic the passage of water over the stone for many years.

LAPPATO FINISH - A varying degree of polishing across the surface of the tile, and it is important to note that the non uniform finish will vary from tile to tile. This is an individual feature of this range of products.

Note: many use a variety of the texturing methods noted above to achieve the desired aesthetic effect.


TILE USAGE

DOMESTIC - Low wear resistance, suitable only for light domestic use after sealing.

LIGHT COMMERCIAL - Medium wear resistance, suitable for domestic and light commercial use.

COMMERCIAL - Good wear resistance, suitable for domestic and commercial use.

SWIMMING POOL USE - Product suited for swimming pool surrounds can be used adjacent to and surrounding swimming pools. They are not however suitable for constant immersion in water.

WET ROOM USE - Product suited for the use in shower rooms, wet rooms or areas that can expect to be in regular contact with water.

STONE TYPES

LIMESTONE - Formed by layers of marine organisms, deposited on the sea floor and compressed over millions of years to create a stone of intriguing texture and character.

TRAVERTINES - Formed by water travellingthrough limestone and emerging as hot springs, then cooling rapidly. The minerals it collects on its journey are captured as rich and creamy colours, frequently complemented by tiny shell patterns.

SLATES & QUARTZITE - Formed by water travelling through limestone and emerging as hot springs, then cooling rapidly. The minerals it collects on its journey are captured as rich and creamy colours, frequently complemented by tiny shell patterns.

MARBLE - Marble is the result of extreme heat and pressure applied to limestone, capturing many beautiful colours that range from Marshalls cool to rich and warm. It can be highly polished, creating the lustrous illusion of depth.

SANDSTONE - Sandstone is a sedimentary rock formation of coarse sand quartz and cementing materials such as clay. Sandstone is often distinguishable by region and colour variations including >grey, yellow, red and white.

BASALT - Basalt is a dense rock formed from volcanic lava, it is extremely hard wearing properties and richness of its appearance. Its texture can vary from granular to glass like, while its dark organic colours truthfully convey its tremendous strength.

STONE FLOOR AND WALL TILE MAINTENANCE GUIDELINES

Once laid and sealed/impregnated in accordance with the Marshalls recommendations, your floor will require periodic aftercare in order to maintain an aesthetically pleasing appearance.

The following are guidelines only and should be tailored to the level of wear experienced and in consultation with the manufacturers instructions.

The sealants recommended by Marshalls may not prevent stains, they act as a barrier that will enable spills to be cleaned up before staining may occur.

GENERAL CLEANING

  • Sweep up any dust and particles.
  • Mop with warm water and Easy Care cleaner (1:50 or 1 capful to a litre bucket).
  • Remove excess water, but do not rinse.
  • Use a stronger solution of Easy Care and water for stubborn marks.
  • For rubber marks, oil & grease spots use Wexa Cleaner (1:10 with water).
  • Leave for 2-5 minutes and brush.
  • Once the mark is removed add more water and brush again.
  • Rinse and leave to dry.

When using Wexa, the effectiveness of the surface sealant may be affected and therefore spot re-sealing may be required, see the below section on re-sealing. Although initial sealing was undertaken, acidic based solutions such as wine or juice must be wiped up immediately to prevent damage to the sealant and ultimate staining of the floor.

Never use propriety brands of household cleaners on your floor, these will damage the sealant and cause excessive wear and tear to the floor.

resealing/reimpreg

RE-SEALING/RE-IMPREGNATING OF FLOORS

Re-sealing is required when the surface protecting the stone is worn away, either through cleaning or foot traffic. You may notice that the floor is slightly harder to keep clean or has a dull finish. The frequency of re-sealing will depend on the level of wear experienced and will therefore be unique to every household. As a general rule re-sealing should be undertaken at least once per year.

Please note, spot re-sealing may be required to heavy wear areas such as around the cooker and sink in a kitchen, around toilets or in doorways.

CLEANING PRIOR TO RE-SEALING – ALL FLOOR TYPES

  • Sweep up any dust and particles.
  • Apply Wexa cleaner, diluted with water (1:10) and clean comprehensively using a mop or soft brush if required, do not allow product to dry.
  • Leave for 5-10 minutes add more water and brush again.
  • Repeat if required.
  • Remove the product from the floor with plenty of water and leave floor to dry thoroughly (minimum 48 hours).
Please note drying times may vary significantly depending on local conditions (i.e. seasons, air humidity, room temperature, ventilation etc). Humidity measurement on the surface will provide certainty and should not exceed 3%.

RE-SEALING OF CLASSICAL DISTRESSED WHITE LIMESTONE, CLASSICAL CELTIC, CLASSICAL PENNANT AND CLASSICAL YORK

  • The surface temperature of the floor should not be below +15°C.
  • Use Multi Seal and apply evenly using a clean cloth, sponge or brush.
  • Re-work in any puddles to ensure they do not dry on the surface.
  • Seal will be touch dry within 1-2 hours.
  • Apply additional coats as required to achieve a uniform appearance and sheen, concentrating on heavy wear areas.
  • Wash cloths if desired and rinse container prior to disposal.
  • Although touch dry the seal will require a minimum of 24 hours to harden prior to replacement of furniture and application of water.
Please note, when re-sealing Classical York floors previously sealed with CF1 resin, please contact a member of our sales team to obtain detailed instructions on the processes required.

IMPREGNATING OF LIMESTONE, TRAVERTINE OR SLATE

  • The surface temperature of the floor should be between 10°C and 25°C, therefore any under floor heating should be turned off in advance. Ensure that when heating is turned back on this is done gradually in 5°C increments.
  • Use Stain Stop and shake the bottle prior to use.
  • Apply generously using a clean brush, roller or sponge. The product can also be applied using a garden sprayer and then distributing using a sponge.
  • Re-work in any puddles to ensure they do not dry on the surface.

RE-IMPREGNATING OF DENSE LIMESTONE OR BASALT

  • The surface temperature of the floor should be between 5°C and 25°C, therefore any under floor heating should be turned off in advance. Ensure that when heating is turned back on this is done gradually in 5°C increments.
  • Use Stain Stop and apply thinly and evenly using a clean brush, roller or cloth. Large areas should be treated in smaller parts of 10-15m2.
  • Re-work in any puddles to ensure they do not dry on the surface.
  • Repeat after about 5 minutes as applying several thin applications ensures better results. Concentrate on heavy wear areas.



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